A person talking on a cell phone

Why Socialism?

Albert Einstein This essay was originally published in the first issue of Monthly Review (May 1949). Editor’s note: For compelling background on the FBI’s 22-year investigation of Albert Einstein please visit: BBC and FBI Freedom of Information Is it advisable for one who

A group of people holding a sign

The Origins of Modern Socialism

The specter of socialism is again haunting the minds of the corporate elite, from the Americas to Europe and beyond. This, after decades of pro-capitalist campaigning from the corporate media, which has always confused “capitalism” with “freedom.” But of course

A man wearing a hat

What is the Permanent Revolution?

Leon Trotsky The socialist revolution begins on the national arena, it unfolds on the international arena, and is completed on the world arena. Thus, the socialist revolution becomes a permanent revolution in a newer and broader sense of the word;


Ninety Years of the Communist Manifesto

Leon Trotsky The Paris Commune proved that the proletariat, without having a tempered revolutionary party at its head, cannot wrest power from the bourgeoisie. Meanwhile, the prolonged period of capitalist prosperity that ensued brought about not the education of the

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Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

Friederich Engels From that time forward, Socialism was no longer an accidental discovery of this or that ingenious brain, but the necessary outcome of the struggle between two historically developed classes — the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Workers Action Introduction